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Therapeutic Effect of Ecklonia cava Extract

    • 1209 posts
    August 8, 2019 11:31 AM EDT
    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrinal disorder that afflicts
    mainly women of childbearing age. The symptoms of PCOS are irregular
    menstrual cycles, weight gain, subfertility and infertility. However,
    because the etiology is unclear, management and treatment methods for
    PCOS are not well established. Recently, natural substances have been
    used for PCOS therapy. Ecklonia cava (E. cava) is a well-known natural
    substance that attenuates the effects of inflammation, allergies, and
    cancer. In this study, we investigated the effects of E. cava extract in
    rats with PCOS. When rats with letrozole-induced PCOS were exposed to
    the E. cava extract, the regular estrus cycle was restored, similar to
    that in placebo rats. Hormone levels, including the levels of
    testosterone, estrogen, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating
    hormone (FSH), and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), were restored to their
    normal states. Histological analysis revealed that the polycystic ovary
    symptoms were significantly decreased in the E. cava-treated rats and
    were comparable to those of normal ovaries. At the transcriptional and
    translational levels, Ar, and Esr2 levels were markedly increased in the
    E. cava-treated rats with PCOS compared with the rats with
    letrozole-induced PCOS. These results suggest that the E. cava extract
    inhibits the symptoms of PCOS by restoring imbalanced hormonal levels
    and irregular ovarian cycles in letrozole-induced female letrozole powder

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrinal disorder that
    afflicts women of childbearing age. The common symptoms of PCOS include
    irregular menstrual cycles, weight gain, subfertility, and infertility
    (Sirmans and Pate, 2013). The symptoms also include lack of ovulation,
    high androgen levels and high numbers of ovarian cysts. Two of the above
    three parameters are used to diagnose PCOS in women (Rosenfield and
    Ehrmann, 2016). Approximately three-quarters of PCOS patients have high
    androgen levels, and this hyperandrogenism is thought to be genetically
    acquired and an effect of the environment on the
    hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis (Codner and Escobar-Morreale, 2007).

    A deficiency in aromatase activity is one of the intraovarian
    disturbances in steroidogenesis that is thought to trigger ovarian
    failure, such as in PCOS. Because aromatase catalyzes the
    rate-determining step during the biosynthesis of estrogens from
    androgens, decreased activity of this enzyme could be expected to result
    in hormonal imbalance, circulating hyperandrogenism and intraovarian
    androgen excess, resulting in polycystic ovaries (Kafali et al., 2004;
    Caldwell et al., 2014). Letrozole has been administered to female rats
    that were used as animal models of PCOS (Caldwell et al., 2014). In PCOS
    models, follicular atresia and abnormal follicular development have
    also been observed in polycystic ovaries (Choi et al., 2005). Aromatase,
    encoded by the Cyp19 gene, is a member of the cytochrome P450 family
    (Bulun et al., 2003) and is a rate-limiting enzyme that catalyzes the
    conversion of androgen to estrogens during steroidogenesis (Mills et
    al., 2014). In the ovary, estradiol is generated by the conversion of
    C19 androgens derived from theca cells under the influence of aromatase
    produced by granulosa cells (Lazaros et al., 2013). In addition to high
    testosterone concentrations, women with PCOS exhibit decreased
    expression of the estrogen receptor β in the granulosa cell layer of
    cystic follicles; this effect has also been observed in animals treated
    with letrozole compared to normal animals.